Ablution Facilities

  • A minimum of 5%, but never less than one, of ablution units should be designated and accessible to people with disabilities.
  • A minimum of 5%, but never less than one, of ablution units should be designated Limited Mobility Ablution Units.
  • Electronic or sensor faucets for automatic use are recommended.
  • Rooms should be provided beside an accessible route and close to the main entrance.
  • Two horizontal grab bars, one in each side of the sink, shall be mounted at height of 700-800mm. The support length should be equal to length of the sink.
  • A bidet shower system, soap and paper dispenser should be mounted near to the sink. All accessories of toilets, including bidet shower, should be mounted at the height of 700-1200mm.
  • The approaching space should be at least 1200mm
  • Floor finishes within ablution spaces should be slip-resistant when wet, and should be anti-fungal and anti-bacterial.
  • Built-in elements within ablution spaces, such as benches or seats, should be located on the same floor level as the circulation routes.
  • Built-in elements should have no sharp edges and incorporate pronounced colour-contrast to differentiate them from the surrounding environment.
  • Ablution faucets may be hand operated or electronically controlled

Building entrance clear space

  • A clear manoeuvring space should be provided to allow people in wheelchairs to reverse of adjust position when opening doors. It will also assist slow moving people or other physical disability adjust their position when passing other people.
  • Clear floor space should not be obstructed by other swinging doors.
  • One way swinging doors should have a manoeuvring space on both sides as per the below dimension guidelines.

1.5m x 1.5m clear space

Building entrance door arrangement

  • Design features such as double door air lock should be considered for climate control without need for revolving doors.
  • When two doors are installed in a linear series, they have a minimum space of 1200mm between the two doors when door is in fully open position.

1200mm between doors

Building entrance door type

Automatic Sliding Doors

  • Automatic sliding doors can be very accessible as can be used adjacent to accessible paths without guard rails.
  • Fully automatic sliding doors, activated by a presence and motion detector that opens door when people approach entrance are the preferred door type for all publicly accessible buildings. 
  • Automatic doors should open early enough to ensure person approaching is aware. The sensor should ensure door is fully open when person is no closer than 1400mm away.
  • Automatic doors should stay open long enough to allow safe entry and exit, especially important for slow moving people such as the elderly.

Building entrance finish and materials

  • Colour and materials of building entrances should contrast with background.
  • Accessible paths of travel leading to pedestrian entrances should be marked with colour and texture contrast to the surroundings.

Glass Facades

  • There should be easily seen strips or markings at eye height on any glazed doors and entrance facades.

Door Frames

  • When using large glass facades, it is necessary to make the opening sliding door very clear.
  • Consider the use of a door frame that is colour contrasting to the glass pane

Internal Entrance Finish

  • Entrance area walls and ceilings should be finished in a plain light matt colour.

Building entrance ramps

Running slope

  • The running slope should be between 1:16-1:25 (6.25% – 4%)
  • In exceptional circumstances, a slope of 1:12 (8.3%) is allowed if can prove there is no other option

Cross slope

  • Cross slope should be avoided or minimized as much as possible.
  • A maximum slope of 1:50 or 2% is permissible if no other option available.

Horizontal Length of Ramp

  • The maximum horizontal length of a ramp, measured between ramp landings, should not exceed 9 meters.

Width of ramp (within handrails):

  • 1200mm minimum (ideal 1500mm)

Handrails height (from floor)

  • top handrail 875-925mm
  • bottom handrail 600-750mm

Forward entrance ramp

Surface Materials

  • Landing areas and ramp surfaces should be firm, stable and slip resistant.
  • Polished or unnecessarily shiney materials such as polished marble is not permitted for ramps

Edge protection

  • A kerb at minimum of 75 mm above the ramp surface on any side of the ramp where no solid enclosure or guard is provided

Side entrance ramp

Building entrance shading

  • Accessible pedestrian entrances should be protected from the weather, particularly the sun.
  • The use of canopies or recessed entrances should be considered.
  • Canopies are also useful in identifying the main entrance for people with sight difficulties.

Building entrance signs

  • Building entrances should be identified by clearly visible signs.
  • The building address should be clearly visible at main entrance.
  • If the entrances is not accessible, signage should provides direction to the closest accessible entrance.

Building entrance single steps

Entrance with single step

Internal ramp with sliding doors

External ramp with swing doors

Internal ramp with inward swing doors

Internal ramp with porch

Internal ramp with outward swing doors

Building entrance stairs

  • Any change in level should be avoided between the external area and internal area. Steps to enter building are not acceptable and if at all needed, an alternative accessible entrance must be provided to the building.
  • Single steps to enter building are not acceptable as cause trip hazard for all users and are difficult for wheelchair users to climb.
  • Where level change is needed for weather protection, the maximum height is 13mm.

Stairs at Buiding Entrance

External Entrance Ramp

Internal Entrance Ramp

Changing places

The following standards are advocated by the Changing Places Consortium in the UK, a leading charity campaigning for changing places to be introduced in all public facilities including:

  • Shopping malls
  • Arts venues, such as museums, galleries and theatres
  • Hospitals
  • Transport hubs like train stations, airports and motorway service stations
  • Leisure and sports complexes
  • Sports stadiums and arenas
  • Entertainment venues, restaurants and cinemas
  • Attractions, such as theme parks and zoos

Their standards are in addition to the typical features of an accessible toilet, such as an emergency alarm and grab rails. 

A height adjustable, adult sized changing bench

  • The changing bench should be a minimum length of 1800mm
  • The bench must be height-adjustable
  • The bench can be either free-standing or wall mounted.

A tracking hoist system

  • A track hoist system (either wall or ceiling mounted) is strongly preferred.
  • The hoist should provide access to the toilet, washbasin, changing bench and open space to transfer

Image courtesy of AMP, a directory for Changing Places installers (

Adequate space in the changing area

  • The changing places facility should be 3m x 4m (or the equivalent floor space of 12sqm), with a minimum ceiling height of 2.4m.

A centrally placed toilet with space either side for the carers

  • A toilet should be placed in a peninsular arrangement, at least 1m away from the wall on either side.
  • The toilet should have a seat height of 480mm
  • The toilet can be a standard manual toilet.
  • A close coupled or wash-and-dry toilet could be provided, but is not a requirement.

Image courtesy of Closomat, manufacturer and supplier of accessible bathroom/ toilet equipment (

Screen or curtain

  • A dignity screen/curtain should be provided to allow the disabled person and carer some privacy
  • Wide tear off paper roll to cover the bench

Wide tear off paper roll

  • Should be provided in a dispenser to the adjacent bench

Waste Bin

  • A large waste bin for disposable pads

A non-slip floor

  • Non-slip floor materials to be used

Image courtesy of PAMIS, a member of the Changing Places Consortium (


  • Standard washbasins are acceptable.
  • If possible, a height adjustable model should be provided.
  • The washbasin should have clear knee space below the bowl.
  • If the washbasin is not height adjustable, the basin should be installed 720-740mm from the floor.

Shower/floor drain

  • Showers are not a requirement of Changing Places.
  • A shower/floor drain should be considered for specific relevant type of managed buildings such as leisure centres and transport hubs.

Image courtesy of OpeMed, official sponsor of the Changing Places Campaign (

Disabled stalls


  • Doors should swing outwards from toilet stall.
  • Inward doors allowed if clear floor space of 800mm wide and 1400mm deep
  • Gravity hinges should return door to closed position

Transfer space

  • Minimum of 900mm wide on one side of water closet
  • Clear from obstructions

In-stall washbasin

  • Washbasins should be located on the wall beside the toilet, with its closest edge 275mm from the front edge of the toilet fixture.
  • The depth of the washbasin should be a maximum of 400 mm.
  • The top of the washbasin should be no higher than 825 mm above the floor and provide a minimum of 700 mm clear knee space beneath.

Disabled washroom

  • A clear door width of minimum 900mm is required (850mm in renovations)
  • A Clear maneuvering space of 21000mm diameter must be provided
  • All toilet doors should have a clear width of 900m.

  • Door furniture should have a reflectance contrast with the walls of at least 30 points LRV

  • A collapsible coat hangar should be installed between 1100 – 1200mm from floor. It should not project more than 50mm from wall.

Elevator dimensions

  • A clear manoeuvring space of 1500 x 1500mm must be provided in front of all elevators
  • Elevator call buttons should be provided at height between 900-1200mm. They should be at least 500mm from the return wall.

Door Dimensions

  • Door width clear space: minimum 950mm
  • Clear headroom: 2100mm minimum

Cabin Dimensions

  • Cabin width: 1725mm minimum
  • Cabin depth: 1525mm minimum
  • Handrail height: 800-900mm

Controls Dimensions

  • Lift control height – 900-1200mm
  • Call button height: 895-945mm
  • Lift number: 1475-1525mm

clear space in front of door

Elevator features

  • Doors should be fitted with re-opening activators. Sensors should be set at two levels to ensure it detects lower items within doorway.
  • Controls, landing sill, and floor should be illuminated by a minimum of 200 lux
  • A mirror should be inside elevators on the wall opposite to the door. It should cover the entire back panel from the handrail to ceiling.
  • At least two handrails should be provided
  • Materials and lighting should be carefully considered to not cause glare, unnecessary reflection and confusing shadows.
  • Control panels should be located (horizontally or vertically) on the side wall of the lift car at a height of between
  • Visual displays and audible announcements should be provided to indicate the floor level reached.



Emergency alarms

  • A waterproof emergency call strip-switch should be provided on the side wall adjacent to the toilet fixture.
  • A second waterproof emergency call strip-switch should be provided on the rear wall adjacent to the toilet fixture.
  • Emergency call strips should activate a bell or other signalling device that is monitored from a location within the facility.

Side Strip Dimensions

  • Width of strip: 1200mm minimum
  • Cap between wall: 150mm minimum
  • Height of strip: 200mm from floor

Rear Strip Dimensions

  • Width of strip: 750mm minimum
  • Height of strip: 200mm from floor

Entrance stairs and ramp


Depth of intermediate landing area:

  • minimum 1500mm (ideal 1800mm)

Width & length of bottom landing area

  • width as per the width of ramp
  • length 2100mm

Width of entrance to ramp

  • minimum 1500mm (ideal 2100mm)

Length of top landing area outside swing of opening door

  • minimum 1500mm

Family washroom

  • At least one family toilet room, in addition to accessible common-use public toilets, should be provided for each gender in all public buildings

Family Room Facilities

  • Accessible family toilet rooms should be located on accessible routes
  • Doors entering family toilet rooms should have power door operators
  • A clear space having a diameter not less than 2100 mm should be provided inside every accessible family toilet room.
  • Accessible family toilet rooms should contain a water closet and accompanying transfer space

Baby Changing Table

  • Where baby change tables are provided, they should be of a fold down type with the change surface a maximum of 850 mm above the floor.
  • No operable mechanisms of the baby change tables should be located higher than 1200mm above the floor.
  • The change table should be designed to carry a maximum load of
  • 1.33 kN (300 lbs).
  • A shelf for a diaper bag should be provided and located to within reach requirements

Grab bars for water closet

  • Two grab bars should be located in each accessible toilet stall.
  • One grab bar should be located behind the toilet
  • The second grab bar should be located on the side wall closest to the toilet fixture.
  • The side grab bars should be of a “cranked” design or a horizontal and vertical grab bar.

Dimensions of side grab bar

  • Length of horizontal grab bar: 300mm minimum
  • Length of vertical grab bar: 300mm minimum
  • Height of grab bar: 800mm from floor
  • Gap between WC – 150mm minimum

Dimensions of rear grab bar

  • Width of grab bar: 600mm minimum
  • Gap between WC – 150mm minimum
  • Height of grab bar: 800mm from floor

Urinal Grab Bars

  • Full length urinals are preferred for all urinals. The bottom lip should be at maximum height of 425mm from floor.
  • Urinals minimum 350mm deep
  • At least one accessible urinal should be provided wherever urinals are located
  • For accessible urinals, a grab bar should be provided on both sides of the urinal mounted vertically with the centreline at 1000mm high. It should be between 380- 450mm from centreline.
  • Where privacy screens are provided between urinals, there should be clearance of 900mm.
  • Clear floor space of 800mm x 1400mm provided.

Internal corridor headroom

  • The clear height for headroom in pedestrian areas should be a minimum of 2100 mm above the floor.
  • Where the headroom of an area that adjoins an accessible route is reduced to less than 2100 mm, a detectable guard, guardrail or other barrier is needed
  • The guard should be firmly fixed, colour contrasted & have solid or horizontal railings

Internal corridor obstructions

  • outward doors to be recessed to at least width of the door.
  • fixtures such as radiators, pipes and ducts to be recessed whenever possible.
  • minimum width a corridor should not reduce to when outswing doors enter space.
  • Where overhanging or protruding elements on freestanding objects are between 650-2100 mm above the ground, they should not encroach more than 300 mm into pedestrian areas.

Floor Obstructions

  • Corridors should be unobstructed along entire length. Items that protrude into circulation space should be recessed outside of corridor path.
  • Corridors should be wide enough to allow people to pass each other and turn 180 degrees.

Wall Obstructions

  • The leading edge of any protruding object found between 650-2100 mm above the ground should not extend more than 100 mm into pedestrian areas.
  • An object with a leading edge at or below 650 mm from the ground may protrude any distance.

Internal stairs

  • Where change in level is 300mm or greater, steps should be provided in addition to ramp.
  • The minimum headroom above the stair pitch line is 2100mm.
  • Single steps should be avoided as cause a trip hazard.
  • Open risers should be not be used in public buildings.
  • Surface finishes should be firm, easy to clean and maintain.
  • The steps should be finished in slip-resistant material.
  • The finish should visually contrast with landing surfaces to help identify the top and bottom of the flight. If different materials are used their frictional characteristics should be similar to avoid trip hazard.

different colour step nosing

tactile warning surface

Multiple flight turning stairs

  • The maximum number of steps between landings is 12.
  • Spiral stairs and tapered treads should not be provided for use by the general public.
  • Where stairs have more than 36 risers in consecutive flights there should be at least one change in direction between flights.
  • Intermediate landing area to be provided on internal stairs over 12 steps.
  • Pattern surfaces should be avoided around stairs.
  • Circular stairs should be avoided.

landing area

Multiple flight straight stairs

  • The maximum number of steps between landings is 12.
  • Intermediate landing area to be provided on internal stairs over 12 steps.
  • Pattern surfaces should be avoided around stairs.
  • Circular stairs should be avoided.
  • Windows or doors should not open into landing areas by stairs
  • Headroom of 2100mm
  • On large stairs, intermediate landing areas with tactile warnings to be provided.

Reception and payment desks

  • Reception desks and counters should be designed to be accessed and used by wide range of people’s ability and height on both customer and staff side.
  • The floor level should be the same on both the staff and customer side of desk.
  • Counters and desks should be set at two heights:
  • Maximum 760mmm high for people seated and a knee recess at least 700mm high 950-1100mm for people standing
  • Knee recess should be 500mm deep on customer side and 650mm deep on the staff side.
  • The counter depth where there is space for a wheelchair user should be at least 700mm
  • The lower section of counters should be at least 1800mm wide.
  • Provision of additional seats at lower counter should be considered.
  • All exposed edges and corners should be well rounded.

Reception Desk with Knee Recess

Reception Desk without Knee Recess

Reception lobby

  • Lobbies should be logically arranged and of adequate size to allow for the ease of circulation of however many people expected to use the building.
  • If the reception area is not located in the main lobby when enter building, clear signage may be needed in public buildings to direct towards reception desks.
  • Signs to key facilities such as lifts, stair, toilets should also be included in the entrance lobby.

Reception queuing areas

  • The distance between the reception service desk and queuing barrier/rail should be at least 1800mm.
  • Permanent barriers should have a rigid top and bottom rail. The top rail should be strong enough for people to lean on to rest. The bottom rail designed as a tapping rail with the lower edge no more than 150mm above floor level.
  • The base of queuing barrier should not present a trip hazard.
  • Queuing barriers and rails should contrast visually with surrounding surfaces.

Stairs handrails

  • Dual height handrails on both sides of interior steps
  • Handrails on continuous  inside edge of stairs with a switchback
  • Stairs with a change in level greater than 500 mm must have continuous handrails on both sides with a 300 mm horizontal extension at its ends. 
  • The handrail should be mounted at a height of 900 mm. An additional handrail shall be provided at a height between 650 mm and 750 mm.
  • Handrails must be separated from the wall surface at least 40 mm. The handrail section and its mounting system should not interfere with the continuous gripping surface.
  • Handrails must have a contrasted reflectance of at least 30 points LRV against its background.

Tactile warning surface

  • For both steps and ramps handrails are to be installed. For ramps or steps wider than 2100mm a intermediate handrail shall be used.
  • When the stair widths are greater than 2100 mm an additional intermediate handrail should be installed. The width between intermediate handrails should be at most 2100 mm.
  • The handrail should be mounted at a height of 900 mm. An additional handrail shall be provided at a height between 650 mm and 750 mm.
  • The handrails must be safely secured. Handrails must have an anatomical design that allows adjustment to the hand with a circular section of 30 mm to 40 mm diameter or an equivalent gripping surface. 


  • Diameter of handrail: 32-50mm
  • Gap to wall: 50-75mm
  • Height of bar: 50mm minimum

Intermediate handrail

Wash basin accessories

  • Washbasins and vanity counters should have a knee space beneath
  • Should be a minimum 800 mm wide and 1400 mm deep clear floor space in front of accessible washbasins


  • In general accessories should have operable portions between 900-1200mm above floor.


  • Faucets should be electronically controlled or have a single long lever-style handle that is operable with a clenched fist.
  • Faucets should not self-close
  • Hot water and drain pipes beneath accessible washbasins should be insulated.


  • Top of washbasin: 850mm from floor
  • Centre line of wash basin to closest wall – 450mm minimum
  • Centre line of faucet to edge of wash basin: 500mm maximum
  • Height of dispensers and dryers: maximum 1200mm above floor
  • Mirror height: 1000mm maximum above floor